Hundreds of Spanish train services were cancelled on Monday, resulting in traffic jams on roads into Madrid and Barcelona, as railway and subway workers staged strikes in protest at wage cuts and reforms.
State rail company Renfe said it had cancelled some 300 high-speed and intercity trains but it added that minimum services agreed with labour unions meant more than 50% of trains would run throughout the day.
Workers called the strike to protest over a restructuring of the transport sector next year which they claim will cost jobs.
Subway workers in Madrid and Barcelona also staged rush-hour stoppages in protest at wage cuts.
Spain is in its second recession in three years with near 25% unemployment. The government is battling to avoid having to seek a full bailout of its finances.